INTRODUCTION

    Ukhrul is one of the five hill districts of Manipur having a total geographical area of 4544 Sq. Km. Ukrul district shares borders with Myanmar in the East, Chandel in the South, Imphal East and Senapati districts in the West and Nagaland state in the North. The area of the district was 8,200 Sq. Km. according to the CSI Publication 1976. Later Tengnoupal District, now called Chandel District was carved out from this district on 15th July, 1983 and the area of the then Manipur East District was sliced down to 4,544 Sq. Km. and the title of the district was changed into Ukhrul District in 1983. Ukhrul lies between 24.28 degree and 25.41 degree North Latitude and 94.45 degree and 94.80 degree East longitudes. The headquarter of the district is linked with Imphal, the State capital by the national highway 150 at a distance of about 84 km. The terrain of the district is hilly with varying heights of 913 m to 3114 m (MSL). As per 2011 census, the district has a total population of 1,83,998, comprising of 94,718 males and 89,280 females. It constitutes about 7.16 percent to the state population as against 6.14 percent in 2001. Tangkhul Nagas constitute the bulk of population with some pockets of other communities like the kukis, the Nepalese and the non-tribals.

    The total number of households of Ukhrul as per 2011 census is 35,694 and the proportion of  ST population is 1,73,606 persons. The decadal growth rate in 2011 over 2001 was found to be 30.68. Ukhrul District recorded the highest growth rate of all the Districts of Manipur for the period 2001-2011. Ukhrul remains the second least thinly populated district next to Tamenglong among the districts of Manipur. It has a population density of 40 persons per square Kilometres as compared to 31 persons and 24 persons in 2001 and 1991 respectively. As per the census report of 2011, Ukhrul has a sex ratio of 943 female per thousand males which is much lower than the state average of 992. Ukhrul district was categorized as an entirely rural district prior 2001 census. Ukhrul ranks 4thin terms of literacy rate out of total 9 districts of Manipur in 2011. As per the census 2011, the average literacy rate of Ukhrul is 81.38 as compared to 73.1 in 2001. 

    The district consists of 7 Sub-divisions namely; Ukhrul, Chingai, Jessami, Phungyar, kamjong, Kasom Khullen, Lungchong Meiphai. These are co-terminus to 8 development blocks viz: Ukhrul, Chingai, Jessami, Phungyar, kamjong, Kasom Khullen, Lungchong Meiphai, and sakamphang.

    The climatic condition of the district is temperately cool in most part of the year. The average maximum temperature recorded is 29.74º C and the minimum temperature recorded is 4.41ºC (2015). The average annual rainfall is 412.74 mm in 2015 as compared to 433.9 mm in 2014 and 130.39 mm in 2013. The average maximum and minimum relative humidity is 100% and 4.45 % respectively (2015). The rainy season in the district is from May to beginning of October broadly but winter is chilly.

    The land use pattern of the district shows that more than four-fifth of the total geographical area of the district is under forest area. Total cropped area contributes just 4 percent in 2012-13 whereas the proportion of wetland to the total geographical area is minimal or negligible.

    Agriculture being the main occupation of the people occupies the most dominant place in the economy of the hills in terms of employment and income. Despite its significant importance in the economy, is dependent on monsoons as irrigation facilities in the district is nil or negligible. Thus, agriculture becomes a traditional means of livelihood than a commercial proposition. Rice is the main stable food crop covered about 101.6 Sq Kms of cultivated land in 2014-15.  Even though the cultivation area under jhum has decreased comparatively with wet cultivation, it still contributes a large proportion to the total area of paddy cultivation. 

    The recorded total forest area of Ukhrul District according to 2015 assessment is 3542 Sq. Km. which is 78 percent of the total geographical area. The total area under forest for the state of Manipur is 16,994 Sq. Km as per the State of Forest Report 2015 and Ukhrul contributes about 21 percent of the total forest area in the State.

    The district has a lone 50 bedded district hospital commissioned since 1976 apart from 2 accredited private health institutions.  There is one Community Health Centre (CHC) at Kamjong and 8 Primary Health Centres (PHC) at Chingai, Jessami, Kasom Khullen, Khangkhui, Lambui, Phungyar, Somdal, and Tallu,  apart from 40 Primary Health Sub-Centres (PHSC) spred at various villages of the district.