The Khumai (Tunggam) KhullenVillage

 General Introduction

The hill areas have a crucial role to play in determining the climate and physiography of the state and are prime determinants of socio-economic development of plain areas as the rivers have their genesis here and the protection and climatic control they provide will enable the state to sustain her population.

As a result, it is crucial to undertake a proper research to address the problem and to mitigate various activities that may be hampering our environment.  One of them is felling of trees in large scale for commercial as well as for domestic consumption. Although the problem cannot be overhaul overnight, addressing the problem in a micro level will greatly benefit the people in the long run because the people in the hills are mostly administered with customary laws and the state laws cannot effectively controlled them.

The Khumai (Tunggam) Village

The Khumai village known and the Tunggam/TungamKhullen in Manipuri, is one of the biggest villages among the Poumai Naga tribe. Situated on the misty mountain, the village is 9 Km away from the national highway 2 and located in Paomata Sub Division of Senapatidistrict Manipur. Beautiful deciduous evergreen forest surrounds the village with a steep entrance known as Koro or the village gate at every Khel of the village.

TOPOGRAPHY

The Khumai (Tunggam) village is located 36 KM towards East from District headquarters Senapati91 KM from State capital Imphal. It lies between 2527′ N - 2528′ N Latitude and 94 11′ E - 9412′ E Longitude and situated at the altitude of 1871 MSL.Tunggam Khullen is surrounded by Purul Tehsil towards South,Tadubi Tehsil towards west,Pfutsero Tehsil towards North and Chingai Tehsil towards East. Kohima ,Zunheboto , Dimapur , Wokha, Mao Gate,Tadubi, Maram and Senapati are the nearby town and cities of Tunggam Khullen.

Abulo is the highest mountain in the region which is 2070 MSL. The Khumai village is just few kilometres from the genesis of Barak river and it serve as the lifeline for the agricultural purposes besides few stream such as Shaodurei, Shaoterei, dziitrulaikorei, koleireikorei etc.

SOCIAL DIVISION

Four villages of Khumai (Tunggam) village constitute the Khumai Union Viz. Tunggam Khullen, Tunggam Afii, Tunggam Makhufii and Paomata Centre. Although administrative and judiciary system of the four Khumai villages are interlinked and administered as one body by the village authority, there are also executive officials of each village who administered their representative villages. Thus a set of separate rules and regulations is framed to manage the members which give rise to the need of separate studies of each of the villages.

Although there is no visible social division among the villagers, the village is divided into five khels and each khel is again divided into three clans. The clan is the smallest exogamy unit. Land and forest are owned according to these social divisions.

ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP

It is imperative to note that there was not a single police station in Poumai Naga tribe which has a population of 1, 87,180 until recently although attempts are now made to establish in some villages. As a result the nearest Police station for the Khumai village is in Tadubi village of Mao tribe which is 9 km away. The Khumai village falls under the 48 Mao constituency of the LokSabha.

HEALTH CARE

When we talk about the health care system, there is not a single big hospital in and around the village. The nearest health care institution of the Khumai village is Paomata PHC which is some two to three km away from the village.

DEMOGRAPHY

The Tungam Khullen village has population of 4, 495 of which 2, 262 are males while 2, 233 are females as per Population Census 2011. The total number of household of the village is 695.


In Tungam  Khullen village population of children with age 0-6 is 407 which makes up 9.05 % of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Tungam Khullen village is 987 which is lower than Manipur state average of 992. Child Sex Ratio for the Tungam Khullen as per census is 976, higher than Manipur average of 936.  As per constitution of India and Panchyati Raj Act, Tungam Khullen village is administrated by Sarpanch (Head of Village) who is elected representative of village. 

CASTE FACTOR

In Tungam Khullen village, most of the village population is from Schedule Tribe (ST). Schedule Tribe (ST) constitutes 99.89 % of total population in Tungam Khullen village. There is no population of Schedule Caste (SC) in Tungam Khullen village of Senapati. 

Particulars

Total

Male

Female

Total No. of Houses

695

-

-

Population

4,495

2,262

2,233

Child (0-6)

407

206

201

Schedule Caste

0

0

0

Schedule Tribe

4,490

2,258

2,232

Literacy

65.12 %

71.01 %

59.15 %

Total Workers

2,642

1,312

1,330

Main Workers

2,346

1151

1157

Main Cultivators

2,210

1053

1157

Main Agricultural Labourers

1

0

1

Main Household

18

7

11

Main OT

117

91

26

Marginal Workers

296

161

135

Marginal Cultivators

244

140

104

Marginal Agricultural Labourers

2

2

0

Marginal Household

10

4

6

Marginal OT

40

15

25

Marginal (3-6 months)

235

130

105

Marginal CL (3-6 months)

194

114

80

Marginal Agricultural Labourers (3-6 months)

0

0

0

Marginal HH (3-6 months)

9

4

5

Marginal OT (3-6 months)

32

12

20

Marginal Workers (0-3 months)

61

31

30

Marginal CL (0-3 months)

50

26

24

Marginal Agricultural Labourers (0-3 months)

2

2

0

Marginal HH (0-3 months)

1

0

1

Marginal OT (0-3 months)

8

3

5

Non Workers

1,853

950

903

 

TUNGGAM KHULLEN VILLAGE POPULATION

The population in Tungam Khullen village is 4,495 as per the survey of census during 2011 by Indian Government. There are 695 House Holds in Tungam Khullen. There are 2,262 males and 2,233 females.

 

LITERACY RATE

In Khumai village there are 2,662 people who are literate out of which males the total number of literate males are 1,460 and 1,202females. Total number of 1,833 persons is Illiterate in the village.

In other words, the Tungam Khullen village has lower literacy rate compared to the state as well as the district. In 2011, literacy rate of Tungam Khullen village was only 65.12 % as compared to 79.21 % of Manipur and 74.1% of the Senapati district. When it comes tomale literacy, it stands at 71.01 % while female literacy rate was 59.15 %. 

TUNGGAM KHULLEN WORKERS POPULATION

In Tungam Khullen village out of total population of4,495, the total number of workers is 2,642 of which 1,312 are males and 1,330 are females. Further 2,346 are regular and 296 are Irregular i.e get jobs only few days in a month. There are 1,853 Non Workers (include students, house wives, and children above 6 years also.) In other words, out of the 2, 642 engaged in work activities, 88.80 % of workers describe their work as Main Work (Employment or Earning more than 6 Months) while 11.20 % were involved in Marginal activity providing livelihood for less than 6 months. Of 2,642 workers engaged in Main Work, 2,210 were cultivators (owner or co-owner) while 1 were Agricultural labourer. 

 

VULNERABILITIES

To know about the socio-economic condition of the people and the vulnerabilities section of the society, it is imperative to know the social structure of that society. The Khumai (Tunggam) village belong to the Poumai Naga tribe of Manipur. Head hunting was the order of the day where pride, bravery and maturity of a male member of the village were count on the number of enemy’s head they could harvest. Thus it was said that most of the time, the male members were busy engaging in head hunting while the female members of the village not only do domestic chores but also do all the cultivation in the field.

Although the practice of head hunting has stop long ago, the attitudes of many of the male members, especially those engage in agricultural sector are such that they still keep aloof from most of the domestic chores. Women are thus left to toil both at home and in the field. As a result, when there is a natural calamity or abnormality, women are the one who suffered most.

As the village is situated at the top of the hill, people are facing huge shortage of water throughout the year. Women are the worst sufferers as most of the household chores including collecting of water for the whole family. As women are the main fetcher of water, they often wake up at around 3-3.30 am and go down at the foothill of the village to fetch it. Another big problem facing by woman folk is the villager’s custom of heavy dependent on firewood for cooking. Almost all the villagers depend on the firewood for fuel and an average 5 members of a family will cut down a truck load of firewood every year. As there are no thick forests near the village, women often walk many kilometres to collect the firewood. To add to this menace is the kind of ownership pattern of forest land which is owned in a very complex manner. In several cases the existence of private and communal forest land ownership has caused unhealthy competition among the villagers which, more often than not, ends up on unnecessary felling of trees.