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INTRODUCTION

    Thoubal District came into existence in  May 1983. The district with its headquarter at Thoubal (25 Km. from Imphal) lies 23° 45' N and 24°45' N latitude and 93°45' E and 94°15' E longitude with a total geographical area of 514 km2. It is bounded Senapati district on the north, Ukhrul and Chandel districts on the east, Churchandpur and Bishnupur districts on the south and Imphal West and Imphal East districts on the west. Physiographically, the district is mainly of the plain area with few hillocks and hills of low heights. 

    According to the 2011 census report, Thoubal district has a total population of 422,168 which made up for 16.42% of the population of Manipur. The district has 210845 male and 211323 female thus having a sex ratio of 1002 females for every 1000 males.  It has a population density of 821 inhabitants per square kilometre and a literacy rate of 74.47%.

    Out of the total area of 496 Km2 of Thoubal district, 482.55 Km2 is in rural area jurisdiction and 31.45 Km2 falls in urban area jurisdiction. The district has 3 Sub-division viz. Thoubal, Lilong and Kakching; 10 (ten) Assembly Constituencies viz. Lilong, Thoubal, Wangkhem, Heirok, Wangjing-Tentha, Khangabok, Wabagai, Kakching, Hiyanglam and Sugnu. As for the Local Self Governmrnt, there are 2 (two) Municipalities namely Thoubal and Kakching.

    The climatic conditions of the district varies with the season. The maximum temperature recorded on the district was 35.59 °C while the minimum was 21.73°C. Rainfall for the year 2015 was very low with only 147.27mm as compared to 409.05mm in 2014.

    The land use pattern of the district shows that 42.40% of the total area is being occupied for agricultural purpose and 24.81% is made up of the water bodies. Forest cover occupies about 5.77% of the total geographical area.

    Majority of the population are engaged directly or indirectly in the agricultural sector and the major crop grown in the district is rice which is about 297.10 Sq.Km for the year 2014-15. And its productivity of rice in the district is 64910 tonnes with a yield rate of 2184.94 kg/ha for the year 2014-15.

    The area under forest as per the State of Forest Report 2015 of the Forest Survey of India (FSI) is 100 Sq. Km which is only 0.58% of the total forest area in the state. The forest area in Thoubal district occupied about 19.46% of the total district area and most of the forest of Thoubal comes under the Open forest category. 

    The district has many rivers and the southwestern part of the district is a part of the Loktak Lake region and this area has a number of shallow and rain fed lakes. Due to constant siltation and reclamation of vast areas for agricultural purposes the lakes are gradually shrinking in size and at present some of them are only in name. 

    On the part of the health factor of the district, the Statistical Year Book, Manipur 2015, reported the presence of  a District Hospital, twelve primary health centres, four community health centres and one leprosy council unit. 

    As for urbanization, there is only 10 towns in the Thoubal district as per the 2011 census and the urban population constituting of 35.85% resides in an area of only 31.45 Sq. Km which is just about 6.12 % of the total district area. The year 1961 can be marked as the beginning of urbanization in Thoubal district, since only after the census of 1971 we began to have urban population which has been increasing steadily till the 2011 census.