The district of Tamenglong, is located on the west of Manipur at an altitude of 1,260 m above the sea level and covers a total area of 4,391 sq.km. It lies between 24°30’N and 25°27’N latitudes and of 93°10’E and 94°54’E longitudes. The district is bounded by Nagaland in the North, Churachandpur district in the South, Senapati district in the East and in the West by the state of Assam. It is the farthest District from the state capital, Imphal and the district headquarter Tamenglong itself is also the farthest District HQ from Imphal with 147 Kms.
The main tribes of the district are ZeliangrongNagas (with different sub-tribes- Rongmei, Liangmai, Zeme, and Puimei) and Kukis besides minority Hmars, Chirus and Khasis. Racially or physically and linguistically Zeliangrongs are Tibeto-Burman (Indo- Mongoloid) of Sino-Tibetan family of the Mongolian race.
Physiographically, Tamenglong is entirely composed of hills, ranges and narrow valleys. The hilltops and valley sides are dotted with small hamlets. Most of the land is hilly except a few pockets of flat lands such as Barak bank, Khoupum Valley and Kunphung.
According to the 2011 census report, Tamenglong district has a total population of 1,40,651which made up for 5.47 % of the population of Manipur. The district has72,371 male and 68,280 female thus having a sex ratio of 943females for every 1000 males. It has a population density of 32 inhabitants per square kilometre and a literacy rate of 70.05%.Tamenglong District has five sub-divisions namelyTamenglong, Tamei, Tousem, Nungba and Khoupum.
Climatically, Tamenglong belongs to sub-tropical zone. Because of high altitude summerare mild with maximum temperature of 27°C and minimum temperature of 5°C.In 2015, the district however experienced a maximum temperature of 37.71°C in monsoon season although the average temperature of the whole year is 34.175°C. This is far higher than the state average temperature of 26.9° C.
Jhum cultivation is the main method of cultivation. And as per the Department of Agriculture, Government of Manipur, the net sown area in the district is less than 1 Sq.km.
One alarming observation is that the net area sown more than once is decreasing each year. For example in 2013 it was 8.58but it came down to 7.76 in 2014 and further down to 7.70 in 2015.
The recorded total forest area of Tamenglong District according to 2013 assessment is 3,865 Sq. Km. which is 88.02 percent of the total geographical area. Out of that, 279 Sq. kms are very dense forest, 1,766 are moderately dense and 1,820 are open forest.The forests can be grouped as Tropical-Ever-green forest, Sub-tropical forest and Bamboo brakes.The forests are rich in wildlife and Tamenglong is often called as the land of the Hornbill (Chareng). In 2015, forest cover of Tamenglong district has increased to 85.49 sq/km.
The main rivers flowing in the District are Barak(Ahu), Irang, Makhru(Makhu), Iring, Ijei(Aga) and Apah rivers etc. Barak(Ahu) is the biggest river. Till now, the water of this river are not utilized for irrigation or power production.The wetland area estimated is 5086 ha. The number of small wetlands, which are less than minimum mapable units (MMU), are 47 in the district.
Precipitation of the district has drastically increased in 2015 which is 483 mm from 146 mmin 2014.
The Tamenglong district, like other hill districts, is very poor when it comes to health sector. Many villages are in the interior region where the nearest health care delivery system is some 20 kms away. In the entire district, there are three hopitals namely, Tamenglong District Hospital, T.B. Hospital, Hospital Tamenglong and there are six PHCs viz. (1) Haochong Block, Haochong (2) Tamei Block Tamei (3) Tousem Block, Tousem and Oinamlong (4) Nungba Block, Khoupum and Noneh, which serve as the main health centre of the district.