The Senapati district is the fourth largest district in the state which was earlier known as North District. It is one of the five hill districts of Manipur. It lies between 24.37˚ and 25.37˚ North latitude and 93.29˚E to 94.15˚E longitude with a total geographical area of 3,271 sq. km.Endowed with rich flora and fauna and other natural resources, the district boast of many endemic species.The national highway-2 passes through the district and serves as one of the main linkage to the rest of the state. As such it has a tremendous potential for development not only in the district but also can add as a facilitator for the development of other districts in the state.
The district has a varied topographical settings with different varieties of both flora and fauna species. For example, Mt. Tenepu or Mt Esii, the highest mountain in the statewith 2,997 msl is situated in the North West of the district. At its foot hill is the famous Dziiko Valley, with mesmerizing streams and wild flowers, attracting hundreds of tourist throughout the year. On the other hand the Barak River basin with 25-30 msl formed one of the lowest landscape in the state.
In between 2997 msl of Mt. Tenepu and 25-30 msl of the Barak river basin, many endemic species of flora and fauna thrives. The climatic condition ranging from a minimum temperature of 3.36ﹾC to a max.of 34.14ﹾC, is very conducive for both flora and fauna although in recent years, the average minimum and average maximum temperature of the district has slightly increased.
The administrative set up of the district is not well developed as for example, in the entire district, it has only 6 (six) police stations. There is not a single police station in the remote area of Poumai Naga tribe, which is one of the largest tribe in the district. The district has 6 (six) sub-divisions and 6 (six) Constituent Assembly.
There are only 1 (one) hospitals in the district, 2 CHC, 1 TB Control Centre, 1 Homeopathic Centre, 11 PHC, 64 PHSC, 2 Dispensary, 6 Dispensaries.
The district population has increased to 4,79,148 in 2011 Census from 2,83,621 in 2001, which has an increase of 1,95, 527. With such drastic change, there is likely to cause environmental imbalances if proper scientific involvement in not taken up in time. Although according to 2001 census, there were 0 urban populations; in 2011 it raised to 7, 476 persons. Nonetheless, majorityof the district population are residing in rural areas. Out of the total population in the district,13.83 % are children.Sex ratio in the district is 959 female per 1000 male.
The literacy rate of the district is 74. 13% which is lower than the state literacy rate of 79.85%, with male and female literacy at 79.98 % and 68.07% respectively.
Climatically, Senapati district falls under humid sub-tropical climate to temperate type with temperature. Thus generally the district enjoys a pleasant temperature throughout the year.
The district has alluvium, lateritic black regur and red ferruginous type of soil.
Most of the people are engaged in agriculture and allied activities with poor infrastructure and thusthey are climate sensitive. As such in the year 2014, when there was a drought like situation in the district, it grossly affected the overall production of the district.
In 2015, forestcover was increased to 66.55 from 66.43 in 2014. Along with it the average rainfall also increased considerablyto 926.95 mm in 2015comparing to 277.2 mm in 2014.
Although many of the important rivers in the state have their genesis from the district, lack of proper irrigational system and infrastructure make the people to live at the mercy of nature. Major rivers such as the Barak, the Iril, the Irang, the Imphal and the Ithai rivers originate from the district. However, there is dearth of proper watershed program in the district.
Over the last few years, the precipitation of the district has gone down although in 2015, slight positive changescould be observed. One of the main causes for that may be felling of trees for timber and fuel couple with Jhumming activities. Heavy dependent on the forest for commercial as well as for domestic purposes in the district has led to forest degradation and de-forestations. It not only disturbed the habitations of several endangered species of flora and fauna but also add to drastic climate change in the district.
As the people in the district are still mostly engaged with traditional methods is production, vulnerabilities of the people to negative climate changesare very high. With poor infrastructure and lack of modern technical know-how, the possibilities of mitigating the negative impact of climate change are also very low in present scenario.As such we need to identify the most vulnerable regions in the district in order to identify andprioritize adaptation interventions.