INTRODUCTION

    The Chandel district is one of the important districts of the state given the multi-lingual, multi-ethnicity culture and tradition it possesses. The Chandel district (formerly known as Tengnoupal district) came into existence on 13th May 1974. The district with a total geographical area of 3,313 square km lies in between 23.49 degree and 24.28 degree north latitude and 94.09 degree to 94.31 degree east longitude. The district total geographical 90% of area is covered by hill ranges. Highest peak is Eswani which is 8,348 ft. The main rivers are (i) The Sekmai River. (ii) Chakpi River (iii) The Lokchao River.

     Chandel lies in the south-eastern part of Manipur. Its neighbours are Myanmar (erstwhile Burma) on the south, Ukhrul district on the east, Churachandpur district on the south and west, and Thoubal district on north. It is about 64 km away from Imphal. Prominent tribes are scattered all over the district they are (alphabetical order) Aimol, Anal, Chiru, Chothe, Gangte, Khoibu, Kom, Kukis, Lamkang, Maring, Monsang, Moyon, Paite, Taroa, Thadou, Vaiphei and Zou etc. There are also other communities like Meiteis and Muslims in small numbers as compared to the tribes. Non-Manipuris like the Tamils, Bengalis, Punjabis, and Biharis are also settled in Moreh areas. The Moreh town, the international trade centre of the state lies on the southernmost part of the District. When the Trans-Asian Super Highway comes into existence, Chandel district will be one of the gateways to the Asian countries.

    The district total population is 144028 according to census 2011. Males are 74549 and Females are 69479. The population growth rate as per 2011 census was 21.88 per cent as against 66.62 per cent in 2001 was the highest growth rate and 35.96 per cent in 1991. The lowest growth rate of the district recorded was 12.38% per cent in 1971. There is great significant decrease of growth rate in the district.

    According to 2011 census report literate people in the district were 95289. Its average literacy Rate is 71.11 as compared to 56.20 in 2001. Positive growth in literacy rate in both male and female accounted for 77.78 percent and 63.96 percent respectively as per 2011 census as against 64.30 percent and 48.00 percent respectively in 2001.The sex ratio in Chandel stood at 933 per 1000 male compared to 2001 census figure of 981. There is gradual decrease in sex ratio in Chandel district.                        

     Per Capita Income of majority of the population of the district is low. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Chandel district one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). From the 2011 Census we found that the population of Chandel district are workers i.e. persons whose main activity is participation in any economically productive work by physical. Education is considered as one of the main factor which gives direct impact to the upliftment of the social status. Various government and private educational institute, such as school, 3 colleges are found in the district. 

     Chandel district is divided into 5 Tehsils, Machi Tehsil is the Smallest Tehsil by population with 17087 populations. Chakpikarong Tehsil is the biggest Tehsil by population with 43202 populations. It is the 2nd least Populated district after Tamenglong. 

    Transport and communication plays a vital role in economic development. The district headquarters is connected by State Highway in Chandel pallet road, which is of the length of 30 km from National Highway No.102. The total length of roads in Chandel district is 501.96 kms. Chandel district summer highest day temperature is in between 22 ° C to 37° C.

    Chandel district is quite rich in mineral wealth like - limestone, copper, nickel, chromites and asbestos, which remain unexploited till date.

Major Land Use / Land Cover Categories (1989-90 ) 

Sl. No

Category

Area (Ha)

% to the total District Area

1.

Settlement

1160.9 

0.35 

2.

Agricultural Land

6192.13 

1.87  

3.

Forest Cover

152804.13 

46.12 

4.

Land with /without scrub

167166.32 

50.46 

5.

Water Bodies

 

 

 

(a) Group - A

 

(b) Group - Be20">(b) Group - B

0  

6.

Others

3975.83 

1.2 

     In the field of agriculture the permanent practice of agriculture is over taking the practice of Jhum/shifting cultivation in the whole of the district gradually. Chandel is one of the districts severely affected by the practice of shifting or jhum cultivation. Chandel district comes under Tengnoupal Forest Division of the state. It has about 81 percent forest cover of the total geographical area. The dense forest on Myanmar border has valuable teak tree in abundance. Forest provides firewood, charcoal, wood and many other forest resources.

    There has been change in climatic phenomenon in the past decades. Due to such changes in climatic phenomena and shortage of the sustainable essential resources of the inhabitants of the district, health conditions and immune against diseases and illness decrease. Such changes in the health of the inhabitants gives rises to the various number of illness, which in turns requires health centres and medical personals to prevent or to cure the illness. Medical facility is the much needed sector in a Chandel

    Records indicates that Changes have been found in the amount of rainfall received (during monsoon and post monsoon), maximum and minimum temperature and maximum and minimum relative humidity during certain temporal units. Such changes are required to be checked and monitored so that the vulnerable sector of the society can be educated, so as to mitigate and adapt the changes in the climate and flourish as a developed and cultured society. 

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