INTRODUCTION

    Bishnupur District came into existence on the 25th May 1983. The district with its headquarter at Bishnupur (27 Km. from Imphal) lies between 93.43º E and 93.53º E Longitudes and 24.18º N and 24.44º N Latitudes with a total geographical area of 496 Sq. Km. It is bounded on the North by Imphal West District, on the South by Churachandpur District, on the East by Imphal and Thoubal Districts. Physiographically, the district may be divided into three main parts i.e. (i) valley or alluvial plain area, (ii) area under water or wetland / lakes and (iii) area covered under hillocks and forest.

    According to the 2011 census report, Bishnupur district has a total population of 237,399 which made up for 9.23% of the population of Manipur. The district has 118,782 male and 118,617 female thus having a sex ratio of 999 females for every 1000 males. It has a population density of 479 inhabitants per square kilometre and a literacy rate of 75.85%.

    Out of the total area of 496 Km2 of Bishnupur district, 458.98 Km2 is in rural area jurisdiction and 37.02 Km2 falls in urban area jurisdiction. The district has 3 Sub-division viz. Bishnupur, Moirang and Nambol; 2 community development blocks viz. Bishnupur and Moirang, 6 (Six) Assembly Constituencies viz. Nambol A.C , Oinam A.C, Bishnupur A.C, Moirang A.C, Thanga A.C, and Kumbi A.C . As for the Local Self Governmrnt, the number of Gram Panchayat is 24 (12 G.P each in one block) and there are 4 (four) Municipalities namely Nambol, Bishnupur, Ningthoukhong and Moirang.

    The district experiences fair cold climate during winter and hot in summers. The maximum temperature in the last three  years is comparatively similar but the winter season temperature was maximum in 2015. In the case of the minimum temperature, the year 2015 is on the lower side as compared to previous years except during the post monsoon. The rain in this region occurs due to the influence of Northeastern wind. the rain in 2015 is on the higher side with 406.26 mm as compared to 364 mm in 2014.

    The land use pattern of the district shows that almost half of the total area (49.3%) of the district is being occupied for agricultural purpose and 30.02% is made up of the water bodies. Forest cover occupies about 4.23% of the total geographical area. 

    The district experiences fair cold climate during winter and hot in summers. The maximum temperature in the last three  years is comparatively similar but the winter season temperature was maximum in 2015. In the case of the minimum temperature, the year 2015 is on the lower side as compared to previous years except during the post monsoon. The rain in this region occurs due to the influence of Northeastern wind. the rain in 2015 is on the higher side with 406.26 mm as compared to 364 mm in 2014.

    The land use pattern of the district shows that almost half of the total area (49.3%) of the district is being occupied for agricultural purpose and 30.02% is made up of the water bodies. Forest cover occupies about 4.23% of the total geographical area.

    Majority of the population are engaged directly or indirectly in the agricultural sector and the major crop grown in the district is rice which is about 216.5 Sq.Km for the year 2014-15. The area under irrigation for the rice cultivation is about 82.60% of the total agricultural land in the district. And its productivity of rice in the district is 69470 tonnes with a yield rate of 3208.25 kg/ha for the year 2014-15.  The district has also the highest production of vegetables in the state of Manipurand villages like Toubul Mamang leikai, Toubul Maning leikai, Khoijuman and Kwasiphai are known for their vegetable production. 

    The area under forest as per the State of Forest Report 2015 of the Forest Survey of India (FSI) is 21 Sq. Km which is only 0.12% of the total forest area in the state. The forest area in Bishnupur district occupied about 4.23% of the total district area and most of the forest of Bishnupur comes under the Open forest category. 

    The water resources in the district mainly consist of the lakes and the small rivers/stream that drains in to the Loktak Lake. Some of the lakes in the district are Loktak, Ngakrapat, Awangsoi, Laisoi, Zingpat, Loukoipat and Ikokpat etc. Loktak Lake covers the maximum area of the total water bodies and serves as a source of water for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. 

    On the part of the health factor of the district, the Statistical Year Book, Manipur 2015, reported a District Hospital, five primary health centres, 36 sub-health centres, 2 community health centres and one leprosy council unit to  have been situated in the district. 

    Urbanization in the state is in its nascent stage of development and Imphal serve as the nerve center of urban settlements. There is only 7 towns in the Bishnupur district as per the 2011 census and the urban population constituting of 36.86% resides in an area of only 37.02 Sq. Km which is just about 7.46% of the total district area. The year 1961 can be marked as the beginning of urbanization in Bishnupur district, since only after the census of 1971 we began to have urban population which has been increasing steadily till the 2011 census.