The north-eastern regions of India have been regarded as the high intensity rainfall area and Manipur without exception had always received its share. Flood in Manipur is not a new thing but never to the scale that would cause concern to everyone.

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Snowfall in Shirui peak

Shirui village witnessed snowfall in Shirui peak in winter almost every year one and half decades before. Though there was more or less variation in the level, the snowfall used to serve as the harbinger of a new season- the cold biting winter coming to an end and the setting in of a warmer season. One spectacular change in the climatic condition of the area could be observed from the frequency and level of snowfalls in this peak. There was a heavy snowfall on 9th January 2015, around 5 pm. This, according to the villagers occurred after a gap of 15 years. Daily weather report shows that the maximum temperature of Shirui village on that particular day was 9.28°C which was the lowest during the whole month. Recorded maximum and minimum temperatures fluctuate over the days of January 2015 in Shirui village with the maximum temperature sharply falling on the particular day of snowfall i.e. on 9th January 2015. Moreover, even though there was no much variation between the maximum temperature (4.98°C) and minimum temperature (4.68°C) during that period, both the maximum and minimum temperatures recorded on hourly basis during the whole day, were at lowest when the snowfall started.

 Snowfall on the peak is regarded as a sign of prosperity and bumper harvest in the particular year. It is believed that the level of prosperity for the particular year is indicated by the level of ranges of the peak covered by the snowfall. The larger the area covered the more prosperous the year it represents and vice versa. However it is observed by the villagers that the coverage of snowfall this year extends only to a limited area which according to their belief would mean less prosperity for the people.

Another remarkable observation could also be made on the level of snowfall. The villagers observe that snowfall in the peak has become uncertain and unpredictable over the years with much lesser frequency. Not only has the snowfall become a rare sight, but the level of it too has decreased considerably. The snowfall which otherwise used to take 2 to 3 days or even a week to melt away in the previous decades was a disappointment for many of the youngsters’ excitement who wished to have a glimpse of the snowfall as the snow had already melted by the time they arrived. This could be taken as sure signs and effects of climate change.

Climate change and global warming: Awareness programme at Laii (Senapati district)

An awareness programme on climate change and global warming organised by CIIRD, Tungjoy in collaboration with LYSO, Laii, under the aegis of Directorate of Environment, Government of Manipur was held at Laii on 3rd April, 2016. The awareness programme was organised to overcome the critical climate change issues and global warming. The awareness programme was started with the opening prayer and a song presentation from the school children.

It was continued by a speech on the global climate change revolution by Yengkokpam Satyajit, Project Scientist, Directorate of Environment, Government of Manipur. He defined climate change scientifically as the any long term significant change in the average weather that a given region experiences. He also discussed and analysed the climate change issues- the mitigation, approaches and methods in the context of Manipur and giving example on the surrounding Laii villages. In his speech, he also observed about the beauty of Laii village surrounded by hilly region on all sides covered by a cluster of mixed dense vegetation. Seeing the village environment, Satyajit shared that trees growing on the roadways was much better than the tree growing on the surrounding village.One possible factor for such declining of forests in the hilly region could be the practicing of slash and burn cultivation or jhum cultivation commonly known as the Pamlouuba which is done mostly by tribal people in the hill areas. (Cutting down) Felling of trees for household uses could be another factor for depleting forest conditions. Such decline of forests may lead to the rise in temperature in the near future. We already know that climate change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. Climate change has now become a part of global topic with the changing impact of the climate change already felt on more floods, drought, stronger storms and more heat and cold waves leading to enormous economic loss, private and public services, drawing resources away from development.

In the same vein, Apao Bunii, another Project Scientist from the same department attributed erratic rainfall as well as many other natural calamitieswhich are witnessing at a more frequent rate in today’s worldto “human induced climate change”. Anthropogenic stresses on nature dwindles wild life habitations and disturbed fresh water ecosystems, he noted.He spoke at length about the importance of conserving nature for human survival. He thus urged the people, especially the Church leaders, the Village Authorities and the youth leaders to take up the responsibilities of conserving naturefor better and safer future.

In continuation of the speeches, Mr H Nando, Cultural activist described the close relationship between the hilly people and the people living in the valley. He told the exact meaning of Laii, which was taken from the Meitei word Lai which means our forefather, the god. The place Laii is the head of all of us, a place of purity and a place where god enter first when life begins in the valley of Manipur. Mr Nando also brought a group of Thang-ta member for showing their skills ascultural and traditional activities of the day.

The president of the CIIRD, PA ThekhoIn his speech talked about climate change that has now become a part of the critical global issues in this era. Global temperature has increasing year by year and its effect has huge impact on natural resources as well as on human being as a whole. As a result of climate change, we are facing the rise of temperature and extreme temperature in different parts of the worlds, erratic rainfall, late arrival of monsoon rain etc. PA Thekho also told the gathering that when a tree is cut in its right season and right age in the next fall, you have ten trees sprouting out of the felled parent trees, making it true that “a tree dies, a tree is born and forest lives forever”.

In today’s world, the earth climate is not static. Over the billions of year of earth’s existence, many changes have been seen on the earth surface like the change in climate, temperature or even in natural resources. Among the changes, forest, which is one of the most valuable ecosystems in the world, is decline rapidly due to deforestation, slash and burn cultivation, permanent agriculture, cattle rearing or commercial logging. Others includes mining, urban expansion or cultivation etc. The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation is the only possible mean to slow down the issue of global warming. Measurable steps to be taken immediately are plantations, agriculture, social community and urban forestry. People participation and awareness programme on the importance of forests must be applied on the long run.


Shirui village[1] is located about 13 kms East of Ukhrul town. As per 2011 census, it has a total population of 1256 persons comprising of 689 males and 576 females. Its population constitutes less than 1 prcent of the total population of the district. The village has a sex ratio of 835 females per 1000 males which is comparatively much lower than the district and state average of 943 and 992 respectively. The total number of households of the village is 284. 







Sex Ratio


Literacy Rate


No.of Households


 Source: Census of India

[*] Shirui village as per 2011 census is categorised into two; viz Shirui chingkha and Shirui Chingthak. However, here the two are clubbed together for making this profile as the village is found functioning under one administration during a survey in  February 2015

With regard to educational infrastructure, the village has one Government high school, one schooless school and a private run primary school. Despite the limited number of educational infrastructure, the literacy rate of the village (93.51%) is comparatively much higher than the average district literacy rate of 81. 38 percent. On the health front, the village has one pimary health sub centre which is not functioning well.

 Educational Institutions



Government High School


Government-run Schooless School


Private-run Primary school


Administrative set up:

The village is classified as two zones viz; Shirui chingthak and Shirui chingkha. There exists a unique feature of two headmen governing the village under a single administration. There are seven clans in the village namely, Shangh Shimray, Langkan Shang, Wungsek, Luirei, Mungleng, Vaca and Hongray. Head of the clans constitute the members of the village authority excepting the village secretary.  Shirui village upholds an age-old political and administrative set up where the headman and the village authority members are all hereditary.

Flora and Fauna:

One of the main attraction of Shirui village is its rich flora and fauna. Shirui (kashong) peak is home to the state flower, Shirui Lily, a rare and endangered species. This particular species attracts thousands of tourists every year. Moreover several other threatened birds and animals which find their natural habitat in the region are brown hornbill, blyth’s tragopan, golden cat, greater spotted eagle, himalayan salamander etc. However the changing climate scenario and different forms of human interference in the region have impacted adversely to these species. The efforts to protect the endangered species have been initiated by the Village Youth Club for the past many years. Some of the measures taken up by this club includes frisking of visitors, serving as volunteers in guarding the site during the blossoming seasons, imposing monetary penalty to those who pluck and uproot the plants,

Composition of workers: 

Main Workers

Marginal workers














Source: Census of India

Total workforce of Shirui village is 51.77 percent comprising of 605 main workers and 50 marginal workers. Cultivators constitutes majority of the workers. It is found that the participation rate of female workers (54.88%) is higher than participation rate of male workers (49.2%). Cultivators constitute the major bulk of main and marginal workers whereas agricultural labourers and industry workers and minimal or negligible.



Agricultural Labourers

Household Industry workers

Other workers

Main Workers





Marginal workers





Source: Census of India

Climatic Profile:

The climatic condition of the village is temperately cool in most part of the year.  The average maximum temperature recorded is 27.98º C and the minimum temperature recorded is 1.48ºC (2014). The average annual rainfall is 433.9 mm in 2014 as compared to 130.39 mm in 2013. The average minimum relative humidity is 9.68 % (2014). The rainy season in the district is from May to beginning of October generally but winter is chilly. Shirui also experience mild snowfall in the shirui peak. However, the ocurrence and level of snowfall has become less frequent. Average temperature and relative humidity of the village have been increasing over the years. Moreover erratic rainfall have become more common in the recent years. 


Agriculture is the main occupation of the village. Rice cultivation for subsistence has been associated with the village since time immemorial. However a recent survey of the village shows that there has been a drastic change in the pattern of agricultural activities during the past 2 decades. Non-availability of water in some of the cultivating area has prompted cultivators to divert to other forms of farming in the forest areas

 Water Resources:

There are mainly four major rivers in the village namely Shinguira kong, Ratik, Yangui, Maret kongrei. These rivers originate from the crevices and slopes of this Shirui Peak. These rivers not only provides drinking water for the village but also as the sole source of irrigation for the paddy fields. Moreover two major rivers of Shirui village namely Shinguira kong and yangui serve as the main source of drinking water of Ukhrul town.

Forest Resources:

Forest is considered one of the main natural resources of the village. It provides numerous foodstuffs including mushrooms, bamboo shoots and different types of vegetables besides being the main source of raw materials for handicraft purposes. Many households depend on  forest and forest products as their main income. . In addition, commercialisation of firewood is rampant in the village as it serves as one of the most dominant source of income for many househlolds.  This is the most contributing factor of deforestation in the village.

Pattern of ownership and use of land

Major portion of the village land is owned by private individuals. The main land use pattern of the village owned by private individuals can be classified as homestead land, cultivable and fallow land. This includes paddy fields and vegetable farming areas. Community land or public land is owned either by the church or the village.

JHUM CULTIVATION – A bane or a boon

In tropical countries like India, the eastern and north-eastern region practice shifting cultivation on hill slopes with over 85% of the total cultivation in northeast India done by shifting cultivation. Jhum cultivation is practiced in some part of Manipur and is prevalent in the whole of North east region. Around three lakh people of 70,000 households are relying on jhum cultivation for livelihood in Manipur State alone. As such, it could be calculated that around 15 per cent of the total population of the State are practicing jhum cultivation, which can be one of the major causes for deforestation. 

Jhum cultivation, also known as the slash and burn agriculture or shifting cultivation is the process of growing crops by first clearing vegetative/forest cover on land/slopes of hills and then burning the area to increase fertility of the soil. Later, seeds are shown in that area. Once the crop are harvested, the land is left fallow to allow  regeneration and the area can be used again after a cycle while the cultivation for the next year is carried out in some other area.

Previously, the jhum cycle used to be for about 10 to 15 years, but with the increase in human population and reduction in the availability of jhumming area, the jhum cycle has reduced drastically to 3-4 years thus causing many problems like large deforestation, rapid soil erosion, land degradation, depletion of the soil nutrients and overall disturbance to the ecology. The reduction in jhum cycle has also reduced the productivity of the land as the fertility of the land cannot be restored in such short period.

Jhum cultivation in Manipur is confined mainly in the hill districts (Chandel, Tamenglong, Senapati and Ukhrul). And as per the available data, the area (in hectares) under jhum cultivation in the hill districts has slightly decreased in the last decade.

The concern of jhum cultivation in this present environment is not only about the loss of forest cover or soil erosion but its relation with the change in climatic conditions. And the question frequently asked is the sustainability of this system of cultivation as compare to others. The dependence of the people in the hilly regions in this form of cultivation deteriorates the environment and with the continuity of the trend, its effect on climate change needs to be properly studied.

Earlier when the fallow periods were long enough, shifting cultivation is a stable system in which soil fertility is maintained but the shortening of  fallow periods between two crop cycles have brought certain changes to the land use pattern. Shifting cultivation which was once believed to enhance biodiversity has now been looked from a negative angle. The change in the climatic conditions due to deforestation and forest degradation can also trace its roots to shifting cultivation. But many scientists is still of the view that this indigenous practices of land use has kept the forests young and growing; and it is also considered a better resource management practice.

Jhum cultivation may have its negative effect but it is a traditional agricultural practice suited for the terrains of the hill   regions and it also provides food sustenance for the people. But even with the decrease in productivity, people still continue to practice jhum cultivation and the transition of the jhum cultivator to other occupations may not be an easy process mainly due to their location and absence of other alternatives. Stress should be given on the need to find out an alternative to shifting/jhum cultivation with an aim to provide a sustainable livelihood to the people dependant on forest.

Jhum cultivation can be one of the greatest threats to the biodiver­sity of the region. Nevertheless, it supplies farming families with food, firewood, medicines and other domestic needs, though it pro­duces low yields of crops and has almost no potential beyond subsis­tence farming. However, in low density population areas, where forest areas are vast, slash and burn practices are sustainable and harmo­nious with the environment. So, the main objective should be to de­velop ecologically sound, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable alternatives to shifting cultivation so that it may help in improv­ing the socioeconomic conditions of the shifting cultivators as well as enhance sustainability of the ecology and environment.


A one day seminar on Global Warming and Climate Change was organised by the Tungjoy Youth and Student Organisation (TYSO) in collaboration with Centre for Indigenous Integrated Resource Development (CIIRD) under the aegis of Directorate of Environment, Government of Manipur on the 23rd July 2016 at Glory Hall, Tungjoy Village.

Dr. Braja Kumar, Deputy Director, Directorate of Environment, Government of Manipur while acknowledging the important role being played by the Tungjoy villagers as the main custodian of Barak River catchment area; cautioned them against unnecessary felling of trees for their short term gains. He said that since adaptation to climate change is as important as maintaining a healthy and resilient ecosystem as well as achieving development priorities and improving the quality of life; we need to find ways to tackle the rapid changes occurring due to climate change. He observe that there is no single solution to this but a combination of promoting conservation practices and restoration of ecosystems, development choices, adaptation actions and capacity building will allow us to effectively address the issues of climate change. 

Further he note that in order to survive human beings not only need each other but also our ecosystem. Many of these impacts on ecological systems have cascading effects on socio, economic and health outcomes. He elaborated that those ecosystems consist of both living and non-living things. For example, water and air are non-living things while trees are living things. However, all of these components are necessary for human beings to survive. Understanding adaptation as part of ecosystem management and development requires balancing the focus of the biophysical risks associated with climate change along with specific risks and opportunities. This would help in addressing the issue of ecosystem and human well-being, capacity and long-term development. 

He said that unnecessary felling of trees without replacing it not only increases the temperature but also cause erratic rainfalls in the region. A glaring example of how climate change over the years has affected the people can be seen from the lesser amount of rainfalls in the year 2014 and 2015 and excess rains in 2016 in the state. 

Systematic planning and utilisation of land is crucial for conservation of natural resources and environment, he noted. Adaptation should not only be seen as a reaction to the changing climate but also as an opportunity to improve human and ecosystem well-being while building resilience. Implementing environmentally sound adaptation options would lead to measurably reduced vulnerability, improved resilience to future changes and higher potential for well-being, he concludes. 









No of Households


Total Population Person


Total Population Male


Total Population Female


Sex ratio


Literates Population Person


Literates Population Male


Literates Population Female


Literacy %


Total Worker Population Person


Total Worker Population Male


Total Worker Population Female


Main Working Population Person


Main Working Population Male


Main Working Population Female


Main Cultivator Population Person


Main Cultivator Population Male


Main Cultivator Population Female


Main Agricultural Labourers Population Person


Main Agricultural Labourers Population Male


Main Agricultural Labourers Population Female


Marginal Worker Population Person


Marginal Worker Population Male


Marginal Worker Population Female


Village Lamphoupasna is habited by Anal tribe in Chandel district which is 5km from Chandel head quarter. There are 106 houses. The village is situated near the bank of Chakpi river which originates from Laimaton hills and passes through Chakpikarong sub-division. Apart from Chakpi river there are two important streams that provide lifeline water source in the village- Shungtha dukong and Mali du. The village is remarkable for its natural resources The village is endorsed with varieties of natural resources like pine and oak tree, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. During spring season varieties of orchids can be found in the forest of the village.

Lamphoupasna  village is one among Anal tribe considered to be the biggest village located in Chandel Sub Division of Chandel district, It has the population of 610 of which 298 are males while 312 are females as per Population Census 2011. 
The population of children age 0-6 is 91 of which 48 are male and female is 43 which makes up 14.91 % of total population of village. The total number of literate persons in the village is 447. In 2011, literacy rate of Lamphoupasna village is 73.27 % compared to 79.21 % of Manipur. The Male literacy stands at 51.67% while female literacy rate was 48.32 %. 
As per the constitution of India and Panchayati Raj Act, Lamphoupasna village is administrated by Sarpanch (Head of Village) who is elected by the villagers as the representative.

Education Facilities

 The village has one lower primary grand in-aid school. For decades most of the children used to walk on foot to the main town for higher education. Recently one private school was set up in 2014 by the Catholic schools to impart education to the children.

Health Sector

The village is 3km from district hospital. Seasonal sickness like fever, common cold, dysentery, diarrhoea and malaria is common in the village. As for senior citizen due to lack of balance diets it lead to many sicknesses like BP low, body ache, joint problems etc. Diabetes is becoming common sickness these days.

Caste Factor

The Schedule tribe population in this village is 608 of which male is 297 and 311 female. Schedule Tribe (ST) constitutes 99.67 % of total population in this village. 

Work Profile

The total workers population in this village is 294, male is 138 and female accounts 156. In this village the working women number is higher than men folk. 53.06 % of workers describe their work as Main Workers population (Employment or Earning more than 6 Months) while 45.23 % were marginal cultivators population. Of 54.08% workers engaged as marginal workers population, 53.40%  were marginal workers  (owner or co-owner 3-6 months) while 45.23% were marginal cultivator labourers (3-6 months).





Total workers




Main worker




Main cultivators




Main agriculture labourers




Main others




Marginal workers




Marginal cultivators




Marginal agriculture labourers




Marginal workers(3-6 months)




Marginal cultivator labourers(3-6)




Marginal agriculture labourers








Medicinal Plant

1. Wild ginger use in purifying blood helps in digestion, fever and cough.

2. Wiregrass is found in abundant in the villages is used for dysentery, bladder and kidney stones, sprains, dislocation of bones.

3. Arrowroot use as soothing sedative.

4. Cocklebur is a shrubby weed found in nook and corner of the village use as cancer and enlargement of the thyroid gland also for malaria and sedative.

5. Oyster plant is used for nasal bleeding and anti-inflammatory.


1.     Vulnerability to the climate change

The occurrence of the Malaria among the villagers is climate sensitive because of the carrier mosquito largely linked to surface temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Recently in April month due to windstorm occurrence in the village some of the houses were blow out by the storm in Lamphoupasna village.

The village is also facing water scarcity problem during dry season. The main source of stream i.e. Shungtha dukong used to dried up as a result the villagers has to fetch water either from Chakpi river or made lagoon from shungtha dukong.

The main sources of livelihood income of the villages depend on agriculture. The villages practice both shifting cultivation and permanent cultivation. Around 70% of the people practice shifting cultivation. The rich flora and fauna of the village forest might be at risk under the long term of shifting cultivation. Gradually leads to variability of the climate on deforestation and also due to natural anthropogenic pressure. 


The north-eastern regions of India have been regarded as the high intensity rainfall area and Manipur without exception had always received its share. Flood in Manipur is not a new thing but never to the scale that would cause concern to everyone. The year 2015 was somehow different from the previous years as the people of the state got to witness a large scale flood that might not have occurred in the last 50-60 years. One ponders upon the question as to how these changes have come so suddenly.

Weather report and analysis of India Meteorological Department (IMD) points out that this year monsoon have been below the long term average and it’s been one of the driest year since 2009. In the north eastern part of the country the monsoon started on a poor note though the rainfall increases as it progress, but the overall rainfall of the season remain below normal. A deficit of 8% was reported in the north-east region and 14% for the whole country. There was a wide variation in the pattern of rainfall all over the country and it is largely seen that there exist variation within the variation.  And climate change seems to be making that variation more extreme.

Recorded rainfall for the last 5 years revealed that the amount of rainfall in Manipur has been decreasing at a steady rate.   However, this year, it is found that there is an increase in the intensity of the rainfall within a short period that has brought much harm to the people.  An average of around 100 mm of rainfall per day was recorded in the last week of July just prior to the flood. Though Chandel district have received huge amount of rain, Thoubal district has not received much rain as to cause such devastating flood.

The location of these two districts might have also contributed to the situation as they are located on the southern corner of the state where the drainage converges. In other words, the floods in Manipur are occurring mainly due to the heavy rainfall in the upper catchment areas that is in the hills, as these areas are mostly degraded thus enhancing the surface run-off. The forest cover of the state has decreased by 100 sq. Km. since the last report as per the India State of Forest Report 2013 of Forest Survey of India  and this may be one of the factors that has led to the unprecedented rainfall condition in  certain part of the state.

Many areas in Thoubal district had been submerged under water making people homeless and bringing destruction to thousands of hectares of agricultural land. A considerable number of fish farms have also been submerged under water in Thoubal district affecting the economy of the people. Whereas, much woes have been brought to the people of Chandel district due to the landslides at various places and the most devastating landslide occur in Joumol village where many houses were swept away. Landslides also wreaked havoc along Imphal-Moreh highway, Tengnoupal-Sangshak road and inter-connecting villages in Chandel headquarter. There is also total loss of communication with many villages as number of bridges have been washed away due to the sudden increase in the volume of water. Few buildings along the river side have also collapsed under the impact of the water current. Loss of human lives  due to the flood and landslides have been the major focus point of the 2015 flood since no loss or destruction to this scale have been reported in the last many years.


Such fallout of the climate calamities is increasing every year and if measures to mitigate it are not taken soon, it may turn out to be the new road to doomsday. During the monsoon season, everyone is worried with the flood but with the overall deficiency in the rainfall this year, it is certain that as winter approaches the water will slowly become sparse and scarcity of water will be the order of the day all around the state. Thus, flood and drought occur in a vicious circle as we  wait and watch.


Report on the

“Two Days Regional Workshop for North Eastern Region (NER) of India on Climate Adaptation Programme and Sustainable Ecosystem”

A certain change in the temperature, precipitation patterns and other weather events like drought & flood may alter the fragile mountain systems of the Himalayan region including the North East Region (NER). This change in the climate is likely to vary from region to region due to their local factors. The variation in the local climatic conditions will call for different study modules and adaptive strategies. Many constraints and gaps still exist in the knowledge system. Therefore, the state governments of the NER came together to bring forth and facilitate the regional climate information networking system. The State Action Plan on Climate Change are in synergies with the National Action Plan on Climate Change, and the climate adaptation programme have specific linkage with two national missions namely;

  1. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE)

  2. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC)

So, focussing on the common understanding about the challenges faced by the region a 2 (two) days regional workshop amongst the various stakeholders of NER was held at Hotel Classic Grande on 25th and 26th April 2016. The workshop was organised to discuss the climate change impact, vulnerability and adaptation in the North Eastern Region (NER) of India. The main objective of the workshop focus on three basic notes namely –

(1) development for building human capacity on climate change science and integration of adaptation  planning on state specific issues,

(2) understanding of issues related for assessing vulnerability, risk and hazards in the   IHR focussing on effective implementation of SAPCC, and

(3) framing of modalities for implementation of training programme in the Himalayan States.

Day 1, the 25th April, 2016

Hon’ble Minister of Forests and Environment, Government of Manipur, I. Hemochandra Singh graced the opening function of the workshop as the Chief Guest along with Shri Shambhu Singh, IAS, Additional Chief Secretary, Forests and Environment as President of the workshop. Dr. M. Homeshwor Singh, Director (Directorate of Environment), Dr. Shirish Sinha, Deputy Director,(SDC and Embassy of Switzerland) and Dr Nisha Mendiratta, Director, (Climate Change Programme , Government of India) graced the function as Guest of Honours.


The dignitaries on the dais

The Director of Environment, Dr. M. Homeshwor Singh, gave the welcome address and background note of the workshop by citing how climate change potentially impair the fragile mountain ecosystem of the Himalayan region impacting the highlanders as well as the downstream settlers. He urged for different models based on knowledge system and data accumulation despite the fragmented knowledge so far available. He emphasized on the need for e-information system with logistic supports from SDC and DST, Govt. of India towards making a road map with clear vision of the mission of climate change and resilience. He also addressed the India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change enshrined national missions that represent multipronged, long term and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in the context of climate change.

The participants of the workshop

Dr Shirish Sinha, Dy. Director (SDC) talk about the role and deliverables of the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) – Towards NE states. By the year 2011, IHCAP was oriented towards climate change scenario focusing mainly on climate change mitigation and adaptation. As of present, they have prioritized on training and capacity building programmes to make the common people aware of the challenges, values and securities of climate change.

The main question is why to focus so much on Himalayan countries. Answer lies in the fact that mountains are most vulnerable to climate changes. First phase (2011-12) of the programme focused on the softer side of capacity building and second phase (January, 2016) to strengthen stakeholders and transfer of knowledge. MoEF, DST and Ministry of Railways launched climate change special express train (Oct-Nov, 2015) for creating awareness at different schools in different locations. Dr Shirish also expressed his high expectations in the next four years regarding the various relevant programmes on climate change issues. He further mentioned about a clear road map for Manipur in the offing and highlighted the role and importance of wetlands in Climate Change Programmes (CCPs).


Dr. Nisha Mendiratta, Director (CCP, DST) stated that her department has already started to open Climate Change Cell in as many as seven Himalayan states of the country in 2014 and three more states including Nagaland, Uttarakhand and West Bengal are under consideration while two states viz. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are in the pipeline. The seven states are Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Sikkim. She also mentioned that the state cells on climate change was suppose to take up action plans on (1) Vulnerability and risk assessment (2) Institutional capacity building and (3) Training programme/public awareness.


Dr. Nisha Mendiratta addressing the participants

As Dr Nisha said, India has become a strong candidate during COP21 and believed that by COP22, DST would be able to compile results of various climate change programmes. She also elaborated the roles of DST, NMSHE and SDC citing the journey of the whole process of developments.


Shri I. Hemochandra Singh, Minister of Forests and Environment, GoM, giving his speech


Hon’ble Minister(Forest & Environment, Revenue, Law & Legislative Affairs), Shri I. Hemochandra Singh, addressed the various environmental issues that can be lifted up at any time and opined that every person will be affected with the changing climate change scenario right from the rickshaw puller to the high profile government employee. The recent storm that lashed the state with hailstorms and minor floods is a very good example of the changing climate in the region. In his words, “Sustainability” gives an indication of possible next steps within a future climate regime in addressing adaptation options for the threats posed by climate change. The concerned department was encouraged to complete the assigned job for CCP before six months time. He longed to see the present environment restored back to the pristine form of the past with positive developmental interventions.

Shri Shambhu Singh addressing the participants


Shri Shambhu Singh, IAS, Additional Chief Secretary (Forest & Environment) ascribed the climate change issues in detail and possible measures to manage it in a small state like Manipur. He reminded the participants for profound thinking process and translation of scientific data for adaptation to climate change. The concerns about the reduction in agricultural and horticultural products as well as impairing of water sources were expressed. Most of the forests are felled down in the name of development, and slash and burn cultivation still continuing in the hill areas are a major issue for climate change. He raised the necessity for the restoration of the green forest and concluded that all the participants should think- what is lost and what is being left?

The inaugural function winded up with vote of thanks by Dr. Y. Nabachandra Singh, Joint Director, Directorate of Environment.


The delegates and participants of the workshop


The agenda of the 1st session was ‘Climate Sensitive Sectors in NER and Strengthening of Institutional Capacity’ and it was moderated by Shri P.N. Prasad, IFS, PCCF, Govt. of Manipur and Dr. Shirish Sinha, Deputy Director of Cooperation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Embassy of Switzerland. There were three speakers who spoke on different sub-themes of the session.


The first speaker Dr. Dinabandhu Sahoo, Director, IBSD, Imphal gave a deliberate talk on the topic ‘Intervention of bio-resource of NE region in climate adaptation’. He stressed on the drastic change in climate in the recent past where hailstorms and flood are seen in one region while on the other at the same time there is shortage of water and drought. He pointed out that NER despite a rich bio-diversity resource region; poverty level of all the state is very low except Sikkim. Likewise, in Manipur even though a variety of different species are prevalent; there are no commercial advantages of these resources. He emphasised that the focus should be on the actual needs of the people as without food no person will be thinking about climate change. It should be made sure before taking up any plans and programmes that the basic necessities of life are met first. Utilising local resources like bamboos based products is being cited as an example and important measure. This, according to him, not only helps to the production of environment friendly products but also creates employment for the people. Suggesting formulation of policies for adaptation and mitigation a common cause, he emphasized to ‘work not in isolation but in integration’ to tackle with climate change issues.


The second lecture on the topic “Sustainable Agriculture of NE region in climate adaptation” in the 1st session was delivered by Prof. L. Nabachandra Singh, Head Agronomy, CAU, Manipur. Analysing the co-relationship between the agriculture and the climate change, Prof. L. Nabachandra asserted that factors like slash and burn cultivation and deforestation in the hilly areas are a major cause of climate change. According to him, Climate change is not only the reason for increased prevalence of pests which threatens the sustainability of agricultural crops but it also leads to increased cost of living for the people by adversely effecting their productivity. He is of the view that use of chemical fertiliser to increase agricultural productivity which in turn causes health hazard is another concern. The speaker opined that the main consequence of climate change in agriculture sector is the decline in bio-diversity like for instance the disappearing of indigenous rice varieties in Manipur. He emphasised on giving adequate attention for sustainable agriculture to satisfy human needs and maintaining environment and conserving natural resources.

Keeping in view the above issues of climate change and sustainable agriculture, the professor recommended various measures which include: Designing sustainable agriculture with the introduction of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA), integrated farming and agro-forestry formulation of resource conservation strategy, soil water reduced agriculture techniques, SRI system of rice cultivation (slight modification if needed), integrated crop management practices (ICMP), zero tillage cropping methods, improvement of composting, vermi-composting, cellulitic fungi etc.,


Another interesting topic ‘Strategic knowledge in climate change and indigenous knowledge of NER’ was delivered by Prof. W. Nabakumar Singh, Manipur University. He stated that climate change has been a natural phenomenon in the history of mankind. The main drivers of climate change are associated with the greedy exploitation of environment and uneconomic approach to nature by human beings. Despite this exploitation, he observed that there also exists numerous indigenous knowledge of preserving the environment through the traditional beliefs and practices because there is a close attachment of the lifestyle of the people to Mother Nature in the context of Manipur. The professor further stressed on the cultural and traditional beliefs and practices possessing scientific significance and how those practices should be upheld to save nature. He cited a simple yet significant example of an indigenous Meitei culture which allows a person to fell trees only on specific days of the week and not on all the days of the week which according to him, exhibits an effective and sustainable indigenous way of utilising natural resources. Speaking on the significance of indigenous knowledge to deal with climate change impacts, he said that the most important thing in this era is to compare the old cognitive methods and the modern style of knowledge. It is considered necessary that both must go hand in hand to fully understand the changing climate issues. The speaker is of the opinion that the solution to these issues will be successful only when there is synthesis of the operational model of modern science with the cognitive beliefs/models of the indigenous people.  In his speech, Prof. W Nabakumar Singh also further stated that climate change can be studied at different levels of life and each different level must be discussed and analysed at the grass root level.  It is felt that giving due importance at the grass root level will in turn help succeed in taking up mitigating measures to cope with the harmful effects of climate change at the national and global levels. Some of the other important recommendations of the lecture include; giving equal weights to the two approaches (modern versus age-old practices) in the mitigation process, identifying drivers of climate change in grass root level, following a holistic approach for insemination of information and knowledge and occupational rehabilitation of people for shifting cultivators.


The session 2 proceeded with the presentation by Dr. T. Brajakumar Singh, Dy. Director, Directorate of Environment and PI, CC Cell, Manipur on ‘Presentation from Manipur state Climate Change Cell- Roles, Responsibilities and Progress’. It was moderated by Dr. Nisha Mendiratta, Director CCP, DST, GoI. In his presentation, Dr. Brajakumar talked in brief about the various framework of the CC cell and its targets achieved till date. He also further detailed out the future work plan to enable other upcoming CC cells to follow its path.


The main recommendation of the session was to establish a data format for collecting sectoral information wherein experts can be consulted as needed. General standardization of the data base from the state after discussions and complementation can be put up as a model example for the other upcoming CC cells. Climate change modelling can be done by outsourcing research institutes such as IITM, IISc and IITs after the time frame needed for climate change projection was fixed. Dr. Nisha requested the complete sectoral database within six months, proper identification of vulnerable people and listing of all the programmes in accordance to their needs, completion of networking within state groups in one month’s time and preparation of district level profiles and concrete data. Another change to be done was the inclusion of the logo of NMSHE in the SCC Cell Manipur website which was presently missing.



Dr. Nisha Mendiratta, Director CCP, DST, GoI continued to be the moderator of Session 3 with the agenda “Risk and Vulnerability Assessment”. There were two speakers for the third session. Dr. Anand Kamavisdar, Scientist-E, DST, GoI gave the first presentation on “National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: DST’s Initiatives” which was more elaborated on the ongoing activities under NMSHE initiated by DST, Govt. of India in collaboration with other agencies. He also emphasized about the NMSHE document with details of the objective, targeted goals, strategies of the mission and the deliverables of the mission.


The second presentation was given by Dr. Jagmohan Sharma, IFS, IISc, Bangalore on “Climate Vulnerability and Risk Assessment in NER of India”, focusing on model for vulnerability assessment at different scale and availability of data. He emphasized on the needs and the objectives for vulnerability assessment since the vulnerability study will differ depending on the scale of the study and regional to regional. 

Various recommendation were given during the session and it  was agreed that there is an urgent need for active interaction among the public including the mass media and the departments about the climate change vulnerability and risk assessment. More intensive problems must be identified on the data based collective information and skill development to bring the adaptive solution of climate change issues. The term Vulnerability is an important part of hazards and risk research; it must be studied at grass root level to decrease all the uncertainties of climate change problems. A report must be made on climate change vulnerability and risk assessment through proper channel including the SCCC and community based to overcome the issues of climate change in this generation.


Lastly, there was a moderated discussion on development of framework for climate vulnerability and risk assessment followed by comments from the participants of the workshop. Prof. Asha Gupta of Manipur University suggested the need for extension of education and trainings related to CCPs. All the representatives from the line department opted for continuance for more capacity building as well as trainings in respect to the understanding of climate change issues. Representatives of the media communities were also of the views for more attention towards short trainings under CCP. Representative from DST, GoI and SDC expressed their willingness for extension of such trainings to the State Government in the possible ways.



Day 2, the 26th April, 2016




The second day of the workshop begins with Session 4 in continuation of the previous session. Dr. Shirish Sinha, Deputy Director of Cooperation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Embassy of Switzerland took the chair of the moderator of the session whose agenda was ‘Community Participation’. The session started with self introduction of the delegates and invitees present.


Dr. Abdhesh Gangwar, Project Director, Centre for Environment Education gave a talk on ‘Community participation in climate adaptation programme - role of local institution, NGOs, Media, etc. and experience sharing’. He suggested many ideas on how to carry the climate change programme. He wished that the film ‘An inconvenient truth’ be reproduced in regional language versions with new input and updates. He is of the view that ‘Parampara’ or Indigenous cognitive methods should be given more importance while addressing the problems of climate change. Since the role of media has increased in every walk of life, it is equally important for them to initiate capacity building of resource provision related to environment and climate change. He requested the personals of the film fraternity for introduction of knowledge clips about climate change between the movie interval in theatres and this can be done in collaboration with the Directorate of Environment. On the context of Manipur, he opined that plays (Sumang Leela) can be used as a medium to create awareness on climate change issues.


The session moved on to the next talk by Dr. I. Meghachandra Singh, Pr. Scientists, ICAR-Manipur, who elaborated the ‘Role of agricultural practices in NE region in Climate Change’. He emphasized his talk on the steps to increase resilience of agriculture in the face of climate change. He mentioned various activities which are needed to maintain and increase the agricultural productivity. Some of the activities are integrated soil management, adoption of climate-resilient crop varieties, stress tolerant HYV varieties, watershed approach, roof water harvesting, in-situ soil moisture conservation, integrated crop management, switching cropping sequences, devising location specific technologies, agro-forestry systems, seed banks, etc.

In between the session, a short thematic film was shown by Dr. Abdhesh Gangwar. The film showcase the science express train for creating awareness especially among the school children focusing on climate change related issues.


It was then followed by an interaction on the talks where many questions have been put up and answers pursued. Not only that many suggestions have also come forward like organizing similar workshop for media people and school children. Valley Rose, a journalist, questioned the un-ability to find an alternative for the jhum cultivators. To the question of Valley Rose; Dr. Meghachandra Singh, ICAR, pointed out about the policy of planting fruit bearing trees in the hills, to reduce the felling rate of trees and that systematic management of the hilly terrains is formulated by planting big trees at the higher altitude followed by smaller trees and shrubs as the altitude decreases and finally followed by terrace farming at the lowest level. He also suggested feasible ecology specific and region specific programmes without isolating jhum cultivators.


Sorthing Shimray from Ukhrul asked for scientific methods of jhum cultivation and that the approach should be drastic as to keep in pace with the climate change. Dr. I. Meghachandra Singh answered him about the need of strong will power of the decision makers to bring practicable solution to the jhum cultivators. Rupachandra of Impact TV asked for the feasibility of specific programmes for teachers and he is of the view that big factories need to be checked because they play huge roles in the climate change process and the media fraternity is ready to help in all possible ways.


Everyone agreed that more studies on local specific conditions is needed and  different models suitable to prevailing circumstances should be developed along with formulating mechanism to reach out to the deprived people. Dr Shirish reminded that Jhum is not a problem but livelihood of the people. Session 4 was closed with the idea of the great responsibility of media, local institutions and NGOs in climate change adaptation programmes. It was also mentioned that the agricultural practices in NE region, where jhum cultivation is much prevalent, should be look into with a different approach and many alternatives.



The agenda of Session 5 was ‘Training Programme on Climate Science and Integration for Adaptation Planning’ and the moderators of the session are Prof. W. Nabakumar Singh, M.U.; Prof. Asha Gupta, M.U.; Prof. N. Rajmuhon Singh, M.U.; Dr. I. Meghachandra Singh, ICAR; Dr. H. Sukhdev, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University and  Dr. Th. Homen, MB College.


The session began with a presentation by Dr. Mustafa Ali Khan, Team Leader, IHCAP, PMU, SDC on the topic ‘Framing of Training Modules for Government Middle Level Officers/Nodal Officers’. After the presentation, the moderators expressed their views on the topic delivered. Prof. Asha Gupta, M.U., stressed the need for every line department to come out with a flexible module, in order to overcome the climate change. In addition to it, Dr. Meghachandra Singh, ICAR, suggested that the awareness about climate change should also be increased through mass media. The need of a holistic approach from every department was essential according to the views of Prof. Rajmuhon Singh, M.U. Even the University department like Geography, Earth Science, Forest and Environment should be included as stakeholders. He also added that the community participation would be more if municipalities and panchayat members also included as stakeholders.


Dr. Sukhdev, Tribal University, mentioned the difference between theory and the actual field conditions, so he was of the opinion that training programme should be started from the grass-root level by tying up with various institutes. Regarding this, the Ministry of Human Resources could be approached in order to enable the introduction of new courses. The study of resilience mechanism of the people to climate change in order to enable to formulate more practical adaptive measures was emphasized by Dr. Homen, MB College. Finally, Prof. Nabakumar Singh, M.U., said that the need of the hour is to make aware about climate change to the grass-root level and inclusion of traditional knowledge in adaptation practices. He also stressed upon the revision of the existing IHCAP modules as per the local needs.



Session 6 started taking the agenda of ‘Designing road map for implementation of SAPCC and enhancing climate knowledge networking at state level’. It was moderated by Shri Shambhu Singh, IAS, ACS (Forest & Environment), Govt. of Manipur; Dr. Nisha Mendiratta, Director CCP, DST, GoI and Dr. Shirish Sinha, Deputy Director of Cooperation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Embassy of Switzerland.


Shri Shambhu Singh, IAS, Addl. Chief Secretary  recommended to organize training programme based on a agro-forestry within 2-3 months and launching of application related to climate change within a month time. He also suggested the analysis of the training needs so as to make the programme more effective. KVKs also may be incorporated as a part of all the training programmes. The improvement of the sacred grooves to make it more carbon rich was also emphasized upon. Awareness programmes should be organized for school children along with due importance to field visits and social norms. The Director of CCP, DST, Dr. Nisha Mendiratta was satisfied with the workshop and would be extending the best possible help from the DST in all future endeavours. In her opinion, Manipur has no dearth of resource person and active participation of stake holders is needed to make the climate adaptation programme more effective. Dr. Shirish Sinha, Dy Director of Cooperation, SDC, Embassy of Switzerland, have approached IISc to develop a common framework for studying the vulnerability of the Himalayan region. Once the framework is developed, it will be a trial and tested in two states of which Manipur will be one. Depending on the outcome of the test, focus on training of CC cell on how to use the vulnerability framework will be taken up. By September 2016, training and capacity building for the nodal officers of the states will be done with the revised modules of IHCAP after adapting to the local needs. Public awareness and orientation programme for journalists specially focusing more on the vernacular media will also be organized under IHCAP.


The workshop ended with vote of thank by Dr Rabindra Panigrahy, Scientist- C, SPLICE, DST, GoI.        

Dr. M Homeshwor Singh, Director, DoE, Govt. of Manipur giving a speech

A one day capacity building workshop on `Role of Women in Climate Change Adaptation` was held at VC Court Hall, Manipur University on 15th April, 2015. The workshop was organized by the Manipur University Working Women’s Association (MUWWA) in collaboration with State Climate Change Cell, Directorate of Environment, Govt. of Manipur.


Since most of the people living in the rural area depends on agriculture, fisheries and the natural resources of the forest and wetland ecosystem of the state for their livelihood, it is important to understand the possible impacts of the climate change on the natural resources of the state. Any impact on the yield of agriculture and its allied sectors and forest regeneration will in turn have a negative impact on the livelihood of the people. As per the projection of climate by the Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA), Manipur state have highlighted its possible impacts  and vulnerabilities in 4 sectors namely Water resources, Forests, Health and Agriculture & its allied sectors. The State Action Plan on climate Change (SAPCC) has clearly outline the objectives to address the existing as well as future challenges of climate change and to reduce the associated risks and vulnerabilities in  the state.


The objectives of the workshop are:

           -  Learning about adaptation actions being taken up in the village level

           - Enhancing capacities for all section of peoples in the state for adaptation through

§ Understanding vulnerability  index

§ Prioritizing adaptation actions

          - Understanding opportunities and challenges for adaptation planning and implementation in the            village level


The Chief Guest of the function Prof H N K Sarma, Vice Chancellor, Manipur University while delivering his speech pointed out that until a natural catastrophe occurs, the earth cannot be doomed. He also added that the increasing population would lead to increase in the demand of food and energy consumption, further increasing the industrial output which will cause hazards not only to the environment but also to the humans. He appealed to the people of the State to follow the Gandhian way of life and respect the law of nature to save the world.


Addressing as the Guest of Honour of the function Dr. M Homeshwor Singh, Director, Directorate of Environment, Govt. of Manipur also emphasized on the population explosion and its ill effects on the ecosystem which would finally compromise the livelihood of the people. He mentioned that the various projections of changes in the climate would make Manipur highly vulnerable in four sectors, viz. water resources, forests, health and agriculture and its allied sectors.

The Chief Guest of the function Prof H N K Sarma, Vice Chancellor, Manipur University while delivering his speech pointed out that until a natural catastrophe occurs, the earth cannot be doomed. He also added that the increasing population would lead to increase in the demand of food and energy consumption, further increasing the industrial output which will cause hazards not only to the environment but also to the humans. He appealed to the people of the State to follow the Gandhian way of life and respect the law of nature to save the world.


Addressing as the Guest of Honour of the function Dr. M Homeshwor Singh, Director, Directorate of Environment, Govt. of Manipur also emphasized on the population explosion and its ill effects on the ecosystem which would finally compromise the livelihood of the people. He mentioned that the various projections of changes in the climate would make Manipur highly vulnerable in four sectors, viz. water resources, forests, health and agriculture and its allied sectors.

Professor W Vishwanath, Dean School of Life Science, Manipur University mainly focused on the scarcity of water due to the changing climate and emphasized on the conservation of fresh water. He made it a point that the over exploitation of the water has brought us many problems like decrease in the migration of fishes etc. and the increasing temperature has helped in spreading disease-causing organisms. He was of the view that awareness is the need of the hour to tackle the challenges of the changing climate.


President of the workshop Dr. Asha Gupta in her presidential speech said that climate change is no longer confined to the local but has become a global issue. She also mentioned that women are not only the main victims of any climate change disasters but also good adapters. Deliberating on the issues, she outlined that the objectives of the workshop were to learn about the vulnerability of climate change and to enhance capacities for proper adaptation. Resource person Dr. Irengbam Meghachandra, Senior Principal Scientist, ICAR spoke on length about the prevailing condition of agriculture and its allied sectors in Manipur and how to adapt to climate change scenario.


Soreiphy Vashum, IFS talk on ‘Role of women in climate change adaptation - forestry sector’. She elaborated on the impact of climate change & role of women in forestry. Further she explains how women are impacted by climate change and suggested how increasing the equality of women with men would help adapt to climate change. Towards the end of the technical session Dr. T Brajakumar, Research Officer, Directorate of Environment, Govt. of Manipur gave a detailed overview of the changing scenario of the climate and focused on the capacity building of the vulnerable section for proper adaptation to the climate change.

In the evening session, a group exercise was conducted to understand the impact of the climate change in our respective locality. Participants of the workshop representing the various districts of the State were asked to give scores on the level of exposures, sensitivity and adaptive capacity on the Vulnerability Index Matrix. Then each group presented their findings with proper explanation for the scores they gave.


In the evening session, a group exercise was conducted to understand the impact of the climate change in our respective locality. Participants of the workshop representing the various districts of the State were asked to give scores on the level of exposures, sensitivity and adaptive capacity on the Vulnerability Index Matrix. Then each group presented their findings with proper explanation for the scores they gave.


The workshop concluded with the closing remarks from Dr. Asha Gupta and vote of thanks by Dr. Kananbala Saranthem, Executive member, MUWWA.


The Khumai (Tunggam) KhullenVillage

 General Introduction

The hill areas have a crucial role to play in determining the climate and physiography of the state and are prime determinants of socio-economic development of plain areas as the rivers have their genesis here and the protection and climatic control they provide will enable the state to sustain her population.

As a result, it is crucial to undertake a proper research to address the problem and to mitigate various activities that may be hampering our environment.  One of them is felling of trees in large scale for commercial as well as for domestic consumption. Although the problem cannot be overhaul overnight, addressing the problem in a micro level will greatly benefit the people in the long run because the people in the hills are mostly administered with customary laws and the state laws cannot effectively controlled them.

The Khumai (Tunggam) Village

The Khumai village known and the Tunggam/TungamKhullen in Manipuri, is one of the biggest villages among the Poumai Naga tribe. Situated on the misty mountain, the village is 9 Km away from the national highway 2 and located in Paomata Sub Division of Senapatidistrict Manipur. Beautiful deciduous evergreen forest surrounds the village with a steep entrance known as Koro or the village gate at every Khel of the village.


The Khumai (Tunggam) village is located 36 KM towards East from District headquarters Senapati91 KM from State capital Imphal. It lies between 2527′ N - 2528′ N Latitude and 94 11′ E - 9412′ E Longitude and situated at the altitude of 1871 MSL.Tunggam Khullen is surrounded by Purul Tehsil towards South,Tadubi Tehsil towards west,Pfutsero Tehsil towards North and Chingai Tehsil towards East. Kohima ,Zunheboto , Dimapur , Wokha, Mao Gate,Tadubi, Maram and Senapati are the nearby town and cities of Tunggam Khullen.

Abulo is the highest mountain in the region which is 2070 MSL. The Khumai village is just few kilometres from the genesis of Barak river and it serve as the lifeline for the agricultural purposes besides few stream such as Shaodurei, Shaoterei, dziitrulaikorei, koleireikorei etc.


Four villages of Khumai (Tunggam) village constitute the Khumai Union Viz. Tunggam Khullen, Tunggam Afii, Tunggam Makhufii and Paomata Centre. Although administrative and judiciary system of the four Khumai villages are interlinked and administered as one body by the village authority, there are also executive officials of each village who administered their representative villages. Thus a set of separate rules and regulations is framed to manage the members which give rise to the need of separate studies of each of the villages.

Although there is no visible social division among the villagers, the village is divided into five khels and each khel is again divided into three clans. The clan is the smallest exogamy unit. Land and forest are owned according to these social divisions.


It is imperative to note that there was not a single police station in Poumai Naga tribe which has a population of 1, 87,180 until recently although attempts are now made to establish in some villages. As a result the nearest Police station for the Khumai village is in Tadubi village of Mao tribe which is 9 km away. The Khumai village falls under the 48 Mao constituency of the LokSabha.


When we talk about the health care system, there is not a single big hospital in and around the village. The nearest health care institution of the Khumai village is Paomata PHC which is some two to three km away from the village.


The Tungam Khullen village has population of 4, 495 of which 2, 262 are males while 2, 233 are females as per Population Census 2011. The total number of household of the village is 695.

In Tungam  Khullen village population of children with age 0-6 is 407 which makes up 9.05 % of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Tungam Khullen village is 987 which is lower than Manipur state average of 992. Child Sex Ratio for the Tungam Khullen as per census is 976, higher than Manipur average of 936.  As per constitution of India and Panchyati Raj Act, Tungam Khullen village is administrated by Sarpanch (Head of Village) who is elected representative of village. 


In Tungam Khullen village, most of the village population is from Schedule Tribe (ST). Schedule Tribe (ST) constitutes 99.89 % of total population in Tungam Khullen village. There is no population of Schedule Caste (SC) in Tungam Khullen village of Senapati. 





Total No. of Houses








Child (0-6)




Schedule Caste




Schedule Tribe





65.12 %

71.01 %

59.15 %

Total Workers




Main Workers




Main Cultivators




Main Agricultural Labourers




Main Household




Main OT




Marginal Workers




Marginal Cultivators




Marginal Agricultural Labourers




Marginal Household




Marginal OT




Marginal (3-6 months)




Marginal CL (3-6 months)




Marginal Agricultural Labourers (3-6 months)




Marginal HH (3-6 months)




Marginal OT (3-6 months)




Marginal Workers (0-3 months)




Marginal CL (0-3 months)




Marginal Agricultural Labourers (0-3 months)




Marginal HH (0-3 months)




Marginal OT (0-3 months)




Non Workers






The population in Tungam Khullen village is 4,495 as per the survey of census during 2011 by Indian Government. There are 695 House Holds in Tungam Khullen. There are 2,262 males and 2,233 females.



In Khumai village there are 2,662 people who are literate out of which males the total number of literate males are 1,460 and 1,202females. Total number of 1,833 persons is Illiterate in the village.

In other words, the Tungam Khullen village has lower literacy rate compared to the state as well as the district. In 2011, literacy rate of Tungam Khullen village was only 65.12 % as compared to 79.21 % of Manipur and 74.1% of the Senapati district. When it comes tomale literacy, it stands at 71.01 % while female literacy rate was 59.15 %. 


In Tungam Khullen village out of total population of4,495, the total number of workers is 2,642 of which 1,312 are males and 1,330 are females. Further 2,346 are regular and 296 are Irregular i.e get jobs only few days in a month. There are 1,853 Non Workers (include students, house wives, and children above 6 years also.) In other words, out of the 2, 642 engaged in work activities, 88.80 % of workers describe their work as Main Work (Employment or Earning more than 6 Months) while 11.20 % were involved in Marginal activity providing livelihood for less than 6 months. Of 2,642 workers engaged in Main Work, 2,210 were cultivators (owner or co-owner) while 1 were Agricultural labourer. 



To know about the socio-economic condition of the people and the vulnerabilities section of the society, it is imperative to know the social structure of that society. The Khumai (Tunggam) village belong to the Poumai Naga tribe of Manipur. Head hunting was the order of the day where pride, bravery and maturity of a male member of the village were count on the number of enemy’s head they could harvest. Thus it was said that most of the time, the male members were busy engaging in head hunting while the female members of the village not only do domestic chores but also do all the cultivation in the field.

Although the practice of head hunting has stop long ago, the attitudes of many of the male members, especially those engage in agricultural sector are such that they still keep aloof from most of the domestic chores. Women are thus left to toil both at home and in the field. As a result, when there is a natural calamity or abnormality, women are the one who suffered most.

As the village is situated at the top of the hill, people are facing huge shortage of water throughout the year. Women are the worst sufferers as most of the household chores including collecting of water for the whole family. As women are the main fetcher of water, they often wake up at around 3-3.30 am and go down at the foothill of the village to fetch it. Another big problem facing by woman folk is the villager’s custom of heavy dependent on firewood for cooking. Almost all the villagers depend on the firewood for fuel and an average 5 members of a family will cut down a truck load of firewood every year. As there are no thick forests near the village, women often walk many kilometres to collect the firewood. To add to this menace is the kind of ownership pattern of forest land which is owned in a very complex manner. In several cases the existence of private and communal forest land ownership has caused unhealthy competition among the villagers which, more often than not, ends up on unnecessary felling of trees.

District Profile